Mediastinoscopy is a surgical procedure used to examine the internal structures of the chest cavity, or mediastinum. The mediastinum is located between and in front of the lungs and contains the heart, the windpipe (trachea), the esophagus, and the lymph nodes
Surgeons at Heritage Valley Health System perform a mediastinoscopy by first making a small incision in the neck or on the left side of the chest. A thin scope called a mediastinoscope is then inserted into the mediastinum. A biopsy can be collected through the mediastinoscope and then examined under a microscope for evaluation.